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Fri Oct 31 06:00:13 SAST 2014

Black graduates boom in SA

Sapa | 18 January, 2011 12:530 Comments

Image by: Eric Malema

The number of Africans who received university degrees in 2008 increased by 334 percent since 1991, compared with a 14 percent increase for white graduates, according to research released by the SA Institute for Race Relations (SAIRR).

However, the majority of degrees awarded in South Africa were being conferred by formerly white institutions.

"In 1991 some 8,514 Africans had been awarded degrees by South African public universities, going up to 2008, an increase of 334 percent," said the institute which examined education department degrees conferred in 2008.

This compares with the 2,347 degrees conferred on coloured graduates in 1991 and the 5,286 in 2008 -- an increase of 125 percent.

In 1991, 2,333 Indians received degrees and in 2008 this went up to 6,857 -- an increase of 194 percent.

In 1991, 27,619 whites received degrees and this went up to 31,527 by 2008.

"It is clear from this data that the racial profile of graduates is changing," the institute said.

Unisa tops

Analysing the sources of the degrees, they found that the University of SA (Unisa) awarded the most degrees in 2008 making up 12.8 percent of the degrees conferred by 23 public universities and universities of technology.

"Some 13.6 percent of all South African bachelors and honours degrees were awarded by the university in 2008. At the same time 5.5 percent of all masters degrees and doctorates were awarded by the university in 2008," a statement said.

"Together they made up 12.8 percent of all degrees conferred."

The primarily distance learning, international university's proportion of students to other universities is 32.7 percent. It was founded in 1873 and during apartheid, it accepted black students, but they had to attend separate graduation ceremonies.

Mastering doctorates

The research shows that the University of Pretoria (UP) awards the most masters and doctorate degrees with 15.8 percent being awarded in 2008.

It was also the second-most prolific regarding the awarding of bachelors and honours degrees, after Unisa at 11.1 percent.

The University of Stellenbosch (US) awarded 13 percent of masters and doctorates and Cape Town University (UCT) awarded 11.4 percent.

Eight universities accounted for nearly two-thirds of all degree awards: UCT 5.9 percent; the University of Johannesburg 7.6 percent; the University of KwaZulu-Natal 7.8 percent; North West University 7.9 percent; UP 11.6 percent; Unisa 12.8 percent US 6.4 percent and the University of the Witwatersrand 5.8 percent of the 65.8 percent of all degrees conferred in 2008.

Support needed

Researcher Marius Roodt commented in a statement that: "‘Other universities, especially historically-disadvantaged institutions, need to be supported, and become centres of excellence in their own right, but not at the cost of already successful universities."

He told Sapa that these institutions did not have resources that formerly white institutions have and suffer from the perception that formerly white universities are better, and the "black" universities not so good.

This was sometimes evident when employers selected equally qualified job candidates.

Due to apartheid-era education laws, black students had to get a letter of permission from the department of education if they wanted to study at a "white" university.

Roodt said that just because a university was disadvantaged, did not mean it was bad, but there were exceptions.

The University of Fort Hare, once a stage for anti-apartheid resistance and disruptions associated with this, was considered a good university.

Quantity not always quality

Roodt also cautioned against assuming that the number of degrees conferred was an indicator of whether the university was good.

"It's [not] a bad thing if it is not awarding lots of degrees. They might just have a niche area. Like Rhodes, which offers journalism. It all depends on what you are looking for."

The University of Fort Hare conferred 1.8 percent of all degrees with 1.2 percent of the total number of students; Rhodes 1.9 percent and 0.8 percent of students; Tshwane University of Technology 3.5 percent and 6.5 percent of students, University of Venda 2.2 percent and 1.4 percent of students, Cape Peninsula of Technology 3.2 percent and 3.7 percent of students; Vaal University of Technology 0.7 percent and 2.1 percent of students; University of Zululand 2.2 percent and 1.3 percent; Mangosuthu University of Technology 0.1 percent and 1.1 percent; Walter Sisulu University of Technology 1.6 percent and 3.1 percent; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University 3.3 percent and 2.8 percent; University of Limpopo 3.6 percent and 2.1 percent; University of the Free State 4.7 percent and 3.3 percent; Durban Institute of Technology 1.5 percent and 2.8 percent; Central University of Technology 1.1 percent with a 1.4 percent proportion of total students.

The study forms part of a larger socio-economic study, the results of which will be released by SAIRR next week.

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