Car boom brings gridlock misery to 'green and happy' Bhutan
Famed for valuing "gross national happiness" over economic growth, Bhutan is a poster child for sustainable development.
But booming car sales may hurt efforts to preserve its rare status as a carbon-negative country - and an increase in traffic is testing the good humour of its citizens.
Bhutan has seen a more than five-fold increase in cars, buses and trucks on its roads in the past two decades, according to transport authority director general Pemba Wangchuk, with capital Thimphu hardest hit by the influx of vehicles.
Phuntsho Wangdi, a media consultant, says the congestion and lack of parking now makes driving stressful in the tiny Himalayan kingdom where there are no traffic lights.
"I wish there were fewer cars. It wasn't like this before," he adds of life in Thimpu, which is home to half the cars in the country.
The nation's economy has grown 7.5% each year in the past decade, according to the World Bank. Officials estimate there is now one car for every seven people in Bhutan, which has a total population of 750,000.
But the nation's narrow country lanes and outdated city roads can barely cope. A lack of infrastructure, along with poor driving etiquette - some simply leave their cars parked in the middle of the road - compounds the problem.
"Every year the number of cars and the number of people are increasing, and the roads have remained the same. It's a problem for us," said Lhendup, a taxi driver.
Morning rush hour journeys that once took five minutes now take more than 30.
This may seem a small figure compared to the hours of gridlock faced by commuters in many African metropoles, but it is a step-change for the Bhutanese who say the situation has rapidly deteriorated in the past year.
"It's chaotic. I eat my breakfast in the car now to save time," says Kuenzang Choden, who drops her four-year-old daughter at school every day before heading to work.
The traffic jams are a sign of the wider economic changes the nation is facing. Bhutan is renowned for prioritising gross national happiness over gross national product (GDP), and has captured tourists' imagination as a tranquil, idyllic land - but there are signs of malcontent.
According to the World Bank's 2018 report, the youth unemployment rate is high, as is rural-to-urban migration, which puts a strain on the resources of towns and cities. And despite its reputation as a place where wellbeing is prioritised, it ranked 95th out of 156 countries in the 2019 UN World Happiness Report.
The proliferation of the internet and smartphones are fuelling modern desires, while car dealers are filling their showrooms with new models from Japan and South Korea to lure buyers.
And while taxes have increased and restrictions were put on vehicle loans, car buyers are not discouraged.
Local financial institutions gave 3.2bn ngultrum (R645m) in car loans in 2015, but by last year the amount had reached 6.7bn ngultrum (R1.35bn).
The figures please local businessmen but worry environmentalists keen to ensure Bhutan remains one of the world's greenest countries.
Environmental activist Yeshey Dorji explains: "As a nation that prides itself on being a carbon-negative country, the increase in the number of fossil fuel vehicles speaks poorly of our leadership position in environmental conservation."
Bhutan and Suriname, both with lush forests, are the only two countries to claim they are carbon negative, absorbing more carbon pollution than they give off.
Methane from cows, the burning of crops and other farm activities used to be Bhutan's main source of greenhouse gases. But that has changed in recent years to industry and cars.
Bhutan's constitution dictates that at least 60% of the country must be forest. The figure is currently above 70% but Bhutan is now importing more in fossil fuels than it exports in hydropower to India - the country's biggest revenue earner.
Public transport is poor, particularly in Thimpu, which is home to 100,000 people but barely 40 buses.
The capital's mayor Kinlay Dorji plans to introduce bus-only lanes on city roads and wants to buy more buses. "It is time for radical measures," he says.
"We have to make public transport more attractive and discourage owning cars," he adds, warning that unless action is taken, Thimphu risks grinding to a standstill.
To ease congestion, the city is also constructing its first two multi-storey car parks that will each take about 600 cars.
The National Environment Commission insists Bhutan is still carbon-negative despite the traffic jams and vehicle boom, but wants to stop things worsening.
Commission secretary Dasho Sonam Wangdi explains: "We cannot stop people from buying cars, but we can introduce alternative, less-polluting cars such as the hybrid and electric ones to reduce carbon footprint."