Changing of the guard: why the three biggest vaccine makers failed on Covid

GlaxoSmithKline, Merck and Sanofi are left playing catch-up to upstarts with new technology

16 February 2021 - 19:40 By Hannah Kuchler and Leila Abboud

As pharmaceutical companies raced to develop Covid-19 vaccines, crossing the finishing line in record time, the world’s three biggest vaccine makers were also-rans.

GlaxoSmithKline, Merck and Sanofi are now left playing catch-up, after upstarts including Moderna and BioNTech demonstrated their mastery of new technologies that will shape the industry for years to come. ..

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